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Which International Agreement Has Peace And Scientific Research As Its Main Purposes

The Madrid Protocol came into force on 14 January 1998 after all the States that were consultative parties on 4 October 1991 tabled instruments for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. In the meantime, each contracting party had specific national requirements that had to be met before the instruments were filed. The main objective of the Antarctic Treaty is to “ensure, in the interests of all humanity, that Antarctica is forever used exclusively for peaceful purposes and does not become the scene or object of international discord.” To this end, it prohibits military activities, except to support science; banning nuclear explosions and nuclear waste management; Promotes scientific research and data exchange and keeps all land claims in the roof. The contract applies to the area south of 60 degrees south, including all ice shelves and islands. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is an international agreement between governments. The aim is to ensure that international trade in wildlife specimens does not jeopardize their survival. As the exchange of wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the regime requires international cooperation to protect certain species from overfishing. CITES was designed in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, more than 35,000 animal and plant species are protected to varying degrees, from living specimens to fur coats to dried grasses. All Arctic states are parties to the convention. 2.

This treaty does not impede the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or other peaceful purposes. b) Any amendment or amendment to this treaty, approved by the majority of the parties, including the majority of those whose representatives are entitled to participate in Article IX meetings, approved by the majority of the parties to this conference, is notified by the custodian government to all parties at the end of the conference and enters into force in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article. Governments that are parties to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements and the decisions taken under these agreements by national legislation. These laws generally apply only to their own citizens, wherever they are in Antarctica, and are intended to enforce the consensual decisions of the advisory parties: activities that are acceptable, entry areas, processes that must precede environmental impact assessment activities, etc. The Antarctic Treaty is often seen as an example of the common heritage of humanity. [32] In August 1948, the United States proposed to place Antarctica under the tutelage of the United Nations as a trust fund managed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, the idea was rejected by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France and Norway. Prior to the rejection, on August 28, 1948, the United States proposed to the complainants a form of internationalization of Antarctica with the support of the United Kingdom.

Chile responded by presenting a plan to suspend all Antarctic claims for 5 to 10 years, while negotiating a final solution that was not advanced. The United States` interest in moving the Soviet Union away from Antarctica was thwarted when the country announced to the complainants in 1950 that it would not accept an Antarctic agreement in which it was not represented.